Pleural mesothelioma is a rare and malignant cancer caused by asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma tumors form in the pleura, a thin membrane of cells that line the lungs and chest wall.
How Is Pleural Mesothelioma Unique?
As the most common type of asbestos-related cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma accounts for approximately 80 – 90 percent of all mesothelioma cases. Pleural mesothelioma differs from other types in four primary ways:
Location: Pleural mesothelioma is located in the linings of the lungs and the chest wall, known as the pleura.
Symptoms: As the disease mostly affects the lungs, the primary symptoms affect the respiratory system, such as shortness of breath, or the thoracic cavity, such as chest pain.
Treatment: The standard treatment for pleural mesothelioma is surgery, which often includes removal of some or all of the pleura and possibly part of the lung, combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation.
Survival: The prognosis for pleural mesothelioma is poor, with a median survival time of about 1 year. However, there are cases of long-term survival, in some cases as long as 20 years.
- Pleural mesothelioma is the most common form of asbestos-related cancer.
- About 2,500 people are diagnosed with pleural mesothelioma each year.
- Standard treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
- Asbestos inhalation
- Lung/chest lining (pleura)
- Common Symptoms
- Chest pain
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
- Pleural effusion (fluid buildup)
- 6 – 12 months
What is the Prognosis for Pleural Mesothelioma?
As with all types of mesothelioma, prognosis for pleural mesothelioma is relatively poor. For patients who do not receive treatment, the median survival is only six months; however, certain types of treatment can improve life expectancy significantly.
The biggest factors affecting the prognosis of pleural mesothelioma patients are:
Resources for Pleural Mesothelioma Patients
- Request a Free Pleural Mesothelioma Treatment Guide
- Connect with Top Mesothelioma Oncologists
- Locate the Nearest Comprehensive Cancer Center
What are the Symptoms of Pleural Mesothelioma?
Anywhere from 20 to 50 years can pass between the time a person is exposed to asbestos and when pleural mesothelioma symptoms begin to appear. Once symptoms do begin to occur, they often show up first in the chest and respiratory system, although some symptoms (like weight loss or fever) can be systemic.
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
- Fluid in the lungs (pleural effusion)
- Dry cough
Less Common Symptoms
- Weight loss
- Night sweats
Pleural mesothelioma can also be accompanied by a set of other conditions that could display symptoms of their own. These include:
- Pleural plaque – a chalky substance that forms on the lungs due to calcification
- Diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) – Gray, fibrous tissue that fills in pleural spaces
- Asbestosis – Scarring of the lungs (fibrosis)
These conditions may also occur on their own in individuals who do not have pleural mesothelioma.
How is Pleural Mesothelioma Diagnosed?
The first step is usually to perform one or more imaging tests (x-ray, CT scans, PET, or MRI) to identify potential tumors. If such a tumor is detected, one or more blood tests may be performed to look for certain biomarkers (high levels of specific substances in the blood). If these tests point toward the possibility of mesothelioma, the diagnosis will need to be verified through a biopsy – usually through a thoracoscopy, thoracotomy, thoracentesis, or mediastinoscopy.
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Read more about:
- Diagnosing and Staging Pleural Mesothelioma
- Top Pleural Mesothelioma Doctors in your area
- New and Emerging Treatment Methods
- The Latest Clinical Trials
- Support Resources for Patients and Families
What Treatments are Available for Pleural Mesothelioma?
All types of mesothelioma are treated using a combination of three types of therapy:
- Surgery – Cytoreduction surgery (also called “debulking”) is often performed with the intent of removing as many cancer cells as possible.
- Chemotherapy – A combination of chemotherapy drugs (usually pemetrexed [Alimta] and Cisplatin) are administered to kill remaining tumor cells.
- Radiation – A blast of targeted radiation therapy to shrink tumors in the body.
Emerging and Experimental Treatments
Since pleural mesothelioma makes up the majority of mesothelioma cases, most experimental treatment options focus on pleural mesothelioma. The most promising experimental treatments include immunotherapy, gene therapy and photodynamic therapy.
Costs Related to Pleural Mesothelioma
As with all types of cancer, pleural mesothelioma treatment costs can be extremely high. The costs associated with the disease can be lumped into several categories:
- Diagnostic testing costs
- Treatment expenses
- Follow-up and recovery costs
How much an individual (and their family) spends on mesothelioma will likely depend on a variety of factors, such as the exact diagnosis, the stage when the disease is diagnosed, what is covered by insurance, and even where the patient resides.
Because asbestos is the only scientifically proven cause of pleural mesothelioma, those who are diagnosed with this deadly cancer may be able to receive legal compensation for many different things, from lost income to medical costs, as well as damages for pain and suffering related to the disease. If you or a loved one has been diagnosed, you should strongly consider taking steps to help offset this potential financial burden.
Learn more about the financial assistance that is available if you or a loved one has been diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma. Financial aid options available to you can include mesothelioma trust funds as well as grants to cover travel, treatment and housing.
You can also explore your legal rights to compensation from asbestos companies liable for your exposure to asbestos.Sources
Ismail-Khan, Rooh, et al. “Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Comprehensive Review.” Cancer Control. 2006 Oct. 13(4): 255-263.
Miles, Susan E. “Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review.” Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 2008; 3:20. DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-3-20
Pairon, Jean-Claude, et al. “Pleural Plaques and the Risk of Pleural Mesothelioma.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 20 February 2013, 105(4P): 293-301. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djs513