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Epithelioid Mesothelioma

Epithelioid mesothelioma is the most common cell type and is diagnosed in about 50 – 70% of all cases.

As with all other types of malignant mesothelioma, epithelioid mesothelioma is caused by asbestos exposure. Compared to other cell types associated with mesothelioma, biphasic and sarcomatoid, epithelial is the most studied form of the rare cancer. Epithelioid cells are slow to grow and respond more favorably to treatment than sarcomatoid cancer cells. On average, patients have a more favorable prognosis compared to other cell types, with an average life expectancy of one to two years.

Epithelioid Cell Structure

Epithelial cells make up one of four types of tissues in the body. Epithelial tissue is found on the skin’s surface, in the linings of hollow organs and blood vessels, and along the lining of internal cavities, including the pleura. When the cells are exposed to a carcinogen, like asbestos fibers, they mutate and become cancerous.

Normal epithelial cells come in several different shapes and can be found in single or multiple layers, depending on where they are. Although some epithelial cells are cube-shaped or columnar, the ones most commonly found in the lining of the lungs are squamous cells, which are flat and allow for molecules to pass through.

Epithelioid mesothelioma cells are also recognizable because of how they group together. The cells form in small clusters, and may be round or oval with more than one nucleus in each cell. Since they tend to cluster together, the cells are slower to metastasize, and are also less resistant to treatments compared to sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells.

Rare Epithelial Cell Types

In addition to the common epithelioid cell type, researchers have identified various rare subtypes that have developed in some cases. While some of these cell types formulate and act similarly to epithelioid cells, other cell types, like deciduoid mesothelioma, may limit treatment options and offer a worse prognosis.

Diagnosing Epithelioid Mesothelioma

Epithelioid mesothelioma presents with a variety of symptoms, but some are location specific based on where the cancerous cells develop. In addition to the cancer’s location, the presence and severity of symptoms depends on a patient’s overall health, age, the cell type and the stage at diagnosis.

Common Symptoms of Epithelioid Mesothelioma
  • Coughing and hoarseness
  • Abdominal or chest pain
  • Fever and fatigue
  • Fluid buildup near the lungs or abdomen
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Constipation

The diagnostic process for epithelioid mesothelioma typically begins with a series of imaging tests, including CT scans, PET scans, and MRIs, along with blood testing. Blood tests can identify specific biomarkers to help determine if mesothelioma cells are present. This method checks for soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs), which are produced by mesothelioma tumors. According to a 2015 study, mesothelin levels in those with mesothelioma are higher than those who are healthy or diagnosed with a benign disease.

After these tests, a biopsy will be performed to confirm a diagnosis. A biopsy can be a non-surgical or surgical procedure to take a tissue or fluid sample for analysis. Lab tests can determine the subtype of mesothelioma cells, identify stage, determine malignancy and definitively confirm mesothelioma. The oncologist may also call for an analysis called immunohistochemistry, which employs different types of antibodies to test for particular antigens in cell tissue.

Immunohistochemistry is one way to differentiate epithelioid mesothelioma from other cell types and malignancies, like adenocarcinoma. For example, antibodies including mesothelin, thrombomodulin, calretinin and WT1 are used to identify epithelioid mesothelioma in patients, while adenocarcinoma will test positive for other antibodies like Napsin A, CEA and surfactant apoprotein. When these antibodies are used in combination, they can help a pathologist correctly diagnose the disease.

Epithelioid Mesothelioma Prognosis

A patient’s cell type also plays a role in their prognosis. Those with epithelioid cancer cells have a better prognosis and overall life expectancy than those with other cell types. On average, patients survive one to two years after diagnosis. A 2017 study suggested epithelial mesothelioma patients who receive multimodal treatment have a median survival time of 23.4 months, compared to median survivals of six and 12 months for sarcomatoid and biphasic mesothelioma, respectively.

Resources for Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma Patients

The prognosis for epithelioid mesothelioma patients is largely dependent on a number of factors, including the location and staging of the cancer, the patient’s age, their general health and if they have any pre-existing conditions.

Treatment Options for Epithelioid Mesothelioma

Among the mesothelioma treatments currently available are several forms of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In many cases, patients will undergo a multimodal treatment plan, which occurs when two or more types of treatment are combined. These therapies may be applied curatively or palliatively for patients with more advanced disease.

It has been shown in several studies that when epithelioid mesothelioma patients undergo multimodal or trimodal therapies, they have better outcomes than patients with other cell types. In a 2018 research study, patients with epithelial or biphasic mesothelioma survived 20.9 and 14.7 months with surgery, compared to only 11.2 for those with sarcomatoid. This is partly because epithelial cells are slower to metastasize than sarcomatoid cells, making them easier to surgically remove.

Radical surgeries, including pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) and extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), are available options for patients with epithelial pleural mesothelioma who are in good overall health and diagnosed early. According to a 2017 study, mesothelioma patients receiving P/D or EPP surgeries saw survival averages of 17 and 24 months, respectively.

Chemotherapy is considered the standard of care when treating epithelial mesothelioma and may be used with surgery or as a first-line therapy when surgery isn’t a viable option. A recent study found applying cisplatin as a heated chemotherapy treatment after surgery could extend survival to 35.3 months, with 27.1 months progression-free. A similar study found an extended pleurectomy-decortication, combined with chemotherapy and intraoperative photodynamic therapy could also extend overall survival. Patients in the study survived three years on average, and had a disease-free survival time of 1.2 years.

Because epithelioid mesothelioma is more common than the other cell types, patients may also be able to partake in clinical trials to find additional treatments, like immunotherapy and gene therapy, which may extend survival.

Author: Linda Molinari

Editor in Chief, Mesothelioma Cancer Alliance

Linda Molinari

Reviewer: Annette Charlevois

Patient Support Coordinator

Annette Charlevois
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American Cancer Society. Surgery for Malignant Mesothelioma. Updated February 17, 2016.

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