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Firefighters and Asbestos Exposure

Firefighters and other rescue workers have some of the toughest and most dangerous occupations in the United States. When a fire breaks out, firefighters arrive on the scene to control the blaze, rescue people and pets trapped inside the structure and protect the public. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2016 there were an estimated 327,000 firefighters employed in the United States, and the number of firefighters employed is expected to increase over the next decade.

Although firefighters and other first responders perform a vital duty for the general public, they also put themselves at increased risk of asbestos exposure. During a fire, asbestos found in materials used inside and outside of the home or building becomes damaged, breaking down and releasing toxic fibers into the air. Although firefighters wear protective equipment when battling a blaze, they are still at risk of being exposed to asbestos fibers after the fire has been extinguished.

Learn About Asbestos and Mesothelioma in Our Free Guide Learn About Asbestos and Mesothelioma in Our Free Guide

How Are Firefighters at Risk of Asbestos Exposure

Older buildings and homes built before 1980 often contain many asbestos materials and other toxins. Decades ago, manufacturers included asbestos in thousands of products used inside and around the home, ranging from crockpots and hair dryers to ceiling tiles and attic insulation. In addition, the carcinogenic mineral could be found in other building materials used throughout the home, including asbestos siding, shingles, plaster and duct insulation as a fire retardant.

At Risk Trades
  • Conservation employees
  • EMTs and paramedics
  • Fire inspectors
  • Hazardous materials workers
  • Police officers

In 2013, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published research compiled from about 30,000 firefighters and learned that their cancer risk was much higher than that of other occupations. The research showed that firefighters had a mesothelioma incidence rate that was twice as high as the general public, due to increased levels of asbestos exposure.

Firefighters today are well-protected when they enter burning buildings and are outfitted with personal protective gear known as turnout clothing. For example, a firefighter’s coat and pants are made out of two layers of fabric and capable of repelling heat. They also use a helmet, gloves and boots that have all been insulated to protect workers from getting burned. Additionally, firefighters are given a self-contained breathing apparatus, known as a SCBA, which helps them breathe in smoke-filled areas and in other spaces where the air is unsafe to inhale due to toxic dust and chemicals.

Following the 9/11 attacks, thousands of firefighters and other first responders raced to the World Trade Center towers in lower Manhattan to rescue survivors. In a rush to get to the scene, some firefighters and rescue workers weren’t wearing protective gear, including respirators. Because of that, they were likely exposed to a toxic dust containing concrete, glass and asbestos particles, along with dioxins and other chemicals.

Since September 11, 2001, several studies have shown a link between firefighters who were on the scene and increased risks of cancer, asthma, PTSD, COPD and other health issues. However, because the latency period for cancers like mesothelioma can be 20 years or more, more cases are likely to be reported.

Preventing Asbestos Exposure

All firefighters need to wear protective gear, including respirators or SCBA, when on the scene of an emergency. This is especially important for times when a firefighter is entering or moving through an area where asbestos products may have been used. Though respirator kits can block out contaminants, exposure risks become a problem when firefighters are disturbing asbestos-containing materials while not wearing their respiratory kits.

There are specific regulations in place through international unions like the National Fire Protection Association that fire departments must adhere to. By closely following the requirements laid out in NFPA 1851, firefighters can avoid unnecessary exposure and the possibility of developing an asbestos-related disease.

Firefighters should routinely inspect their turnout gear for soiling, rips, tears, broken stitches and other damage. More in-depth inspections should be performed every year or whenever a problem is reported with the turnout gear during a routine inspection. In addition, every firefighter assigned protective equipment needs to clean their gear after each use. The cleaning process includes taking certain precautions like:

Protective equipment has a usable lifespan and should be retired when the equipment reaches the manufacturer’s suggested date. In other cases, equipment that is damaged and irreparable should be retired immediately. Firefighters should also take precautions to prevent asbestos fibers from coming home with them and potentially exposing their loved ones to fibers embedded in their clothing or on their body. Firefighters should shower before leaving the station to remove asbestos fibers from their skin and hair.

Because firefighters are at a higher risk of being exposed to asbestos materials, the U.S. Fire Administration suggests they can reduce their occupational hazard risk by undergoing routine medical monitoring. The International Association of Fire Fighters has a program available for employees to receive routine screenings, which allows doctors to discover and diagnose diseases like lung cancer or pleural mesothelioma earlier when more treatment options are available.

Author: Tara Strand

Senior Content Writer

Tara Strand

Reviewer: Jennifer R. Lucarelli

Lawyer for Mesothelioma Victims and Their Families

Jennifer R. Lucarelli

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NIOSH Study of Firefighters Finds Increased Rates of Cancer. Updated October 2013.

Daniels RD, Kubale TL, et al. Mortality and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950–2009). Occupational and Environmental Medicine. October 2014; 71(6):388-397. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2013-101662

International Association of Firefighters. Respiratory Diseases and the Fire Service. 2010.

Lyon (FR): International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 2010; 98.

Moir W, Zeig-Owens R, et al. Post-9/11 cancer incidence in World Trade Center-exposed New York City firefighters as compared to a pooled cohort of firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (9/11/2001-2009). American Journal of Industrial Medicine. September 2016; 59(9):722-730. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22635

Occupational Health and Safety Administration. Asbestos.

Poplin GS, Griffin S, et al. Efficacy of a proactive health and safety risk management system in the fire service. Injury Epidemiology. December 2018; 5(1). doi: 10.1186/s40621-018-0148-9

Solle NS, Caban-Martinez AJ, et al. Perceptions of health and cancer risk among newly recruited firefighters in South Florida. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. November 2017; 61(1):77-84. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22785

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